Three-dimensional (3D) printing, augmented reality, and virtual reality technologies have an increasing presence in the management of prostate and kidney cancer. To assess the utility of 3D printing, augmented reality, and virtual reality for (1) quantitative outcomes, (2) surgical planning, (3) intraoperative guidance, (4) training and simulation, and (5) patient education for patients with kidney and prostate cancer a systematic literature review was performed. Existing evidence demonstrates improvement in clinical outcomes, surgical planning and intra-operative guidance, as well as training. Future studies are needed to assess the impact of 3D technologies on long-term patient-related outcomes.
ASJC Scopus subject areas