The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN): The Impact of Midlife and the Menopause Transition on Health and Functioning in Early Old Age

  • Brooks, Maria Mori (PI)
  • Burnett-bowie, Sherri-ann M. (CoPI)
  • Derby, Carol A. (CoPI)
  • Harlow, Siobán D. (CoPI)
  • Hedderson, Monique Marie (CoPI)
  • Janssen, Imke (CoPI)
  • Karlamangla, Arun S. (CoPI)
  • Karvonen-gutierrez, Carrie Anne (CoPI)
  • Mcconnell, Daniel (CoPI)
  • Thurston, Rebecca (CoPI)
  • Waetjen, Elaine L. (CoPI)

Project: Research project

Project Details


PROJECT SUMMARY SWAN, the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation, has collected a wealth of biopsychosocial and physiologic data on an inception cohort of 3,302 women, most of whom have adhered to follow-up examinations spanning 25 years. Since the original aims of SWAN were to characterize the menopausal transition in women, sex steroid measurements for estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) have been a crucial part of the project from the start. In the early years of SWAN, state-of-the-art, highly sensitive, direct immunoassays (IA) for E2 and T were developed by the University of Michigan Central Ligand Assay Satellite Services (CLASS) Laboratories. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based technology has now largely supplanted IA for hormone measurement. SWAN has adapted to this change by performing all sex steroid assays using LC-MS/MS from Visit 15 onwards. However, all hormone levels performed on the cohort from the baseline (Visit 0) to Visit 13 have been performed using IA and require reconciliation to LC-MS/MS. The proportion of undetectable samples for both E2 and T has also increased over time as the SWAN sample are now all well past their final menses. Correlation of IA to LC-MS/MS sufficient to allow for conversion of one method to the other for hormones is incomplete due to an inability to resolve the lower limit of detection. In the current SWAN-Aging U19 grant, we have planned to reanalyze E2 and T using a contemporary LC-MS/MS-based technology. We now propose to develop and measure E2 and estrone (E1) using an ultrasensitive LC-MS/MS-based assay that will measure reliably as low as 1 pg/mL E2. This assay will be used subsequently for postmenopausal samples from SWAN. The current administrative supplement proposes 1 new aim, Aim 1: To develop an ultrasensitive liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay for E1 and E2 that performs with
Effective start/end date9/30/202/29/24


  • National Institute on Aging: $10,998,003.00
  • National Institute on Aging: $315,983.00
  • National Institute on Aging: $11,145,077.00
  • National Institute on Aging: $196,732.00


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