Trajectories of cigarette smoking in adulthood predict insomnia among women in late mid-life

David W. Brook, Elizabeth Rubenstone, Chenshu Zhang, Judith S. Brook

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Scopus citations


Objective: To examine the relationship between trajectories of cigarette smoking among a community sample of women (N= 498) with insomnia in late mid-life. Methods: Participants were administered structured interviews at four time waves in adulthood, spanning approximately 25. years (mean ages = 40, 43, 48, and 65. years). At each wave, data were collected on participants' cigarette smoking. At the most recent time wave, in late mid-life, participants reported on their insomnia (difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep, early morning wakening, and daytime consequences of these sleep problems).Results: Growth mixture modeling extracted four trajectory groups of cigarette smoking (from mean ages 40-65. years): chronic heavy smokers, moderate smokers, late quitters, and non-smokers. Multivariate logistic regression analysis then examined the relationship between participants' probabilities of trajectory group membership and insomnia in late mid-life, with controls for age, educational level, marital status, depressive symptoms, body mass index, and the number of health conditions. Compared with the non-smokers group, members of the chronic heavy smoking trajectory group were more likely to report insomnia at mean age 65 (Adjusted Odds Ratio = 2.76; 95% confidence interval = 1.10-6.92; p< 0.05).Conclusions: Smoking cessation programs and clinicians treating female patients in mid-life should be aware that chronic heavy smoking in adulthood is a significant risk factor for insomnia.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1130-1137
Number of pages8
JournalSleep Medicine
Issue number9
StatePublished - Oct 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • Insomnia
  • Mid-life women
  • Smoking and insomnia
  • Smoking trajectories
  • Women's health

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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