The severity of vestibular dysfunction in deafness as a determinant of comorbid hyperactivity or anxiety

Michelle W. Antoine, Sarath Vijayakumar, Nicholas McKeehan, Sherri M. Jones, Jean M. Hébert

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety-related disorders occur at rates 2–3 times higher in deaf compared with hearing children. Potential explanations for these elevated rates and the heterogeneity of behavioral disorders associated with deafness have usually focused on socio-environmental rather than biological effects. Children with the 22q11.2 deletion or duplication syndromes often display hearing loss and behavioral disorders, including ADHD and anxiety-related disorders. Here, we show that mouse mutants with either a gain or loss of function of the T-Box transcription factor gene, Tbx1, which lies within the 22q11.2 region and is responsible for most of the syndromic defects, exhibit inner ear defects and hyperactivity. Furthermore, we show that (1) inner ear dysfunction due to the tissue-specific loss of Tbx1 or Slc12a2, which encodes a sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter and is also necessary for inner ear function, causes hyperactivity; (2) vestibular rather than auditory failure causes hyperactivity; and (3) the severity rather than the age of onset of vestibular dysfunction differentiates whether hyperactivity or anxiety co-occurs with inner ear dysfunction. Together, these findings highlight a biological link between inner ear dysfunction and behavioral disorders and how sensory abnormalities can contribute to the etiology of disorders traditionally considered of cerebral origin.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5144-5154
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Neuroscience
Issue number20
StatePublished - May 17 2017


  • 22q11.2
  • Hyperactivity
  • Inner ear
  • Nkcc1
  • Slc12a2
  • Tbx1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Neuroscience


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