The Birth of Stereotactic Surgery: A Personal Retrospective

Philip L. Gildenberg, Patrick J. Kelly, James T. Goodrich, Douglas Kondziolka, Ronald R. Tasker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


THE FIELD OF human stereotactic surgery was born at Temple Medical School in Philadephia in 1947, with Ernst A. Spiegel and Henry T. Wycis its parent. I had the great fortune of walking into Dr. Spiegel's laboratory as a freshman medical student looking for a summer research project in 1956, when the field was emerging from its infancy, and worked with Spiegel and Wycis for the most of the next 13 years and Rolf Hassler the following year. The perspective of the early growth of the field as it grew, contracted, and then blossomed are presented.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)199-208
Number of pages10
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2004
Externally publishedYes


  • Apparatus
  • Ernst A. Spiegel
  • Extrapyramidal
  • Functional neurosurgery
  • Henry T. Wycis
  • History
  • Image-guided surgery
  • Movement disorders
  • Pain
  • Parkinson's disease
  • Robert H. Clarke
  • Stereotactic surgery
  • Victor Horsley

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Clinical Neurology


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