Targeting estrogens and various estrogen-related receptors against non-small cell lung cancers: A perspective

Radhashree Maitra, Parth Malik, Tapan Kumar Mukherjee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) account for ~85% of lung cancer cases worldwide. Mammalian lungs are exposed to both endogenous and exogenous estrogens. The expression of estrogen receptors (ERs) in lung cancer cells has evoked the necessity to evaluate the role of estrogens in the disease progression. Estrogens, specifically 17β-estradiol, promote maturation of several tissue types including lungs. Recent epidemiologic data indicate that women have a higher risk of lung ade-nocarcinoma, a type of NSCLC, when compared to men, independent of smoking status. Besides ERs, pulmonary tissues both in healthy physiology and in NSCLCs also express G-protein-coupled ERs (GPERs), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRs), estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) and orphan nuclear receptors. Premenopausal females between the ages of 15 and 50 years synthesize a large contin-gent of estrogens and are at a greater risk of developing NSCLCs. Estrogen—ER/GPER/EGFR/ERR— mediated activation of various cell signaling molecules regulates NSCLC cell proliferation, survival and apoptosis. This article sheds light on the most recent achievements in the elucidation of sequential biochemical events in estrogen-activated cell signaling pathways involved in NSCLC severity with insight into the mechanism of regulation by ERs/GPERs/EGFRs/ERRs. It further discusses the success of anti-estrogen therapies against NSCLCs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number80
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2022


  • Anti-estrogen/ER/GPER/EGFR/ERR therapies against NSCLCs
  • Epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs)
  • Estrogen receptors (ERs)
  • Estrogen-related receptors (ERRs)
  • Estrogens
  • G-protein-coupled ERs (GPERs)
  • Non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs)
  • Pre/postmenopausal women

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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