Pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine mRNA induction in the periphery and brain following intraperitoneal administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide

Nicolas P. Turrin, Dave Gayle, Sergey E. Ilyin, Mark C. Flynn, Wolfgang Langhans, Gary J. Schwartz, Carlos R. Plata-Salamán

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

208 Scopus citations


Gram-negative bacteria-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS or endotoxin) is known to play an important role in immune and neurological manifestations during bacterial infections. LPS exerts its effects through cytokines, and peripheral or brain administration of LPS activates cytokine production in the brain. In this study, we investigated cytokine and neuropeptide mRNA profiles in specific brain regions and peripheral organs, as well as serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α protein levels, in response to the intraperitoneal administration of LPS. For the first time, the simultaneous analysis of interleukin (IL)-1β system components (ligand, signaling receptor, receptor accessory proteins, receptor antagonist), TNF-α, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, glycoprotein 130 (IL-6 receptor signal transducer), OB protein (leptin) receptor, neuropeptide Y, and pro-opiomelanocortin (opioid peptide precursor) mRNAs was done in samples from specific brain regions in response to peripherally administered LPS. The same brain region/organ sample was assayed for all cytokine mRNA components. Peripherally administered LPS up-regulated pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-1β and/or TNF-α) mRNAs within the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus, spleen, liver, and adipose tissue. LPS also increased plasma levels of TNF-α protein. LPS did not up-regulate inhibitory (anti-inflammatory) cytokine (IL-1 receptor antagonist and TGF-β1) mRNAs in most brain regions (except for IL-1 receptor antagonist in the cerebral cortex and for TGF-β1 in the hippocampus), while they were increased in the liver, and IL-1 receptor antagonist was up-regulated in the spleen and adipose tissue. Overall, peripherally administered LPS modulated the levels of IL-1β system components within the brain and periphery, but did not affect the neuropeptide-related components studied. The data suggest specificity of transcriptional changes induced by LPS and that cytokine component up-regulation in specific brain regions is relevant to the neurological and neuropsychiatric manifestations associated with peripheral LPS challenge.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)443-453
Number of pages11
JournalBrain Research Bulletin
Issue number4
StatePublished - Mar 1 2001
Externally publishedYes


  • Adipose tissue
  • Cerebellum
  • Cortex
  • Endotoxin
  • Growth factor
  • Hippocampus
  • Hypothalamus
  • Interleukin
  • Liver
  • Neuroimmunology
  • Neuropeptides
  • Rat
  • Spleen
  • Tumor necrosis factor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Neuroscience


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