Premature and early menopause among US women with or at risk for HIV

Brooke W. Bullington, Andrew Edmonds, Catalina Ramirez, Lisa Rahangdale, Genevieve Neal-Perry, Deborah Konkle-Parker, Deborah Jones Weiss, Caitlin Moran, Elizabeth Topper Golub, Helen Cejtin, Dominika Seidman, Seble Kassaye, Tracey E. Wilson, Anjali Sharma, Adaora A. Adimora, Andrea K. Knittel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Objective:Little is known about the prevalence and treatment of premature and early menopause among people with HIV. We described premature and early menopause and subsequent hormonal treatment in a longitudinal cohort of women living with or at risk for HIV in the US.Methods:Data from the Women's Interagency HIV Study between 2008 and 2020 were analyzed to describe premature and early menopause among cohort participants under the age of 51.Results:Of 3,059 eligible women during the study period, 1% (n=35) underwent premature menopause before age 41, 3% (n=101) underwent menopause between ages 41 and 46, and 21% (n=442) underwent menopause between ages 46 and 50, inclusive. Of participants who experienced menopause before age 41, between age 41 and 45, and between ages 46 and 50, 51%, 24%, and 7% (respectively) received either menopausal hormone therapy or hormonal contraception.Conclusion:These findings suggest that disparities in receipt of recommended hormone therapy for premature and early menopause may contribute, in part, to evident health disparities, such as cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and overall mortality. They also suggest a substantial need for education among people experiencing early menopause and their providers, with the goal of improving access to hormone therapy based on guidelines to address health disparities and minimize future health consequences.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)741-747
Number of pages7
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 14 2022


  • Early menopause
  • HIV
  • Menopausal hormone therapy
  • Premature menopause

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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