Performance of Direct Visual Inspection of the Cervix with Acetic Acid and Magnification in a Previously Screened Population

Ana Cecilia Rodríguez, Lidia Ana Morera, Concepción Bratti, Rolando Herrero, J. Thomas Cox, Jorge Morales, Mario Alfaro, Martha Hutchinson, Philip E. Castle, Allan Hildesheim, Mark Schiffman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Objective. To assess the screening performance of direct visual inspection with acetic acid and ×2 magnification (VIAM) in a previously screened population, as performed by experienced gynecologic nurses with minimal training in VIAM. Patients and Methods. Performance of VIAM was evaluated in 2,080 women from a population-based cohort in Guanacaste, Costa Rica, 5 years after they had negative enrollment results of conventional and liquid-based cytologic analysis, cervigram, and human papillomavirus DNA by Hybrid Capture Tube Test (Digene Corporation, Gaithersburg, MD). The VIAM results were compared with repeat conventional Pap smears, liquid-based cytologic examinations, and cervicography, with adjudication of differences by reference to MY09/MY11L1 consensus primer polymerase chain reaction detection of oncogenic human papillomavirus DNA. Results. Less than 5% of women were classified as having positive results using VIAM. The VIAM positivity was also very low among women with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion conventional Pap smear results (8.3%), high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion liquid-based cytologic results (6.3%), or cervigrams suggesting cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2,3 or cancer (30%). The VIAM positivity was not associated with human papillomavirus DNA positivity. Conclusions. As we practiced it, VIAM was not sensitive for detection of possibly serious incident cervical lesions in this previously screened population where cytologic screening is in place.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)132-138
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Lower Genital Tract Disease
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 1 2004
Externally publishedYes


  • Cervical cancer
  • Direct visual inspection
  • Human papillomavirus
  • Screening
  • VIAM

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynecology


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