Paraoxonase-1 genetic polymorphisms in organophosphate metabolism

Efthimios Dardiotis, Athina Maria Aloizou, Vasileios Siokas, Zisis Tsouris, Dimitrios Rikos, Chrysa Marogianni, Michael Aschner, Leda Kovatsi, Dimitrios P. Bogdanos, Aristidis Tsatsakis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

35 Scopus citations


Organophosphates (OPs) are a class of chemicals commonly used in agriculture as pesticides, that can often lead to severe toxicity in humans. Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) belongs to a family of A-esterases and hydrolyses several OPs while also serving other biological roles. Two main genetic polymorphisms have been shown to affect enzymatic ability; an A > G transition in the 192nd position (192 Q/R, rs662), and an A > T at codon 55 (55 M/L, rs854560). In this review, we searched PubMed for relevant articles published from its inception till June 2018 and included publications from 1996 to 2018. We aimed to address the distribution of the polymorphisms in various populations, the way they affect enzymatic activity and the possible use of PON1 as a biomarker. The polymorphisms present great heterogeneity between populations, with the data being clearer over 192 Q/R, and this heterogeneity is related to the phylogenetic origins of each population. Concerning enzymatic activity, the different genotypes react better or worse to different OP substrates, with studies presenting a variety of findings. Detecting the “paraoxonase status” of an individual -referring to PON1 function- seems to be important in predicting OP toxicity, as studies have shown that some specific-genotype individuals present symptoms of toxicity in higher rates than others. We are strongly convinced that in order for the scientific community to reach a consensus over which polymorphisms confer susceptibility to toxicity and whether PON1 can eventually be used as a biomarker, more studies need to be carried out, since the data thus far does not seem to reach a universal conclusion.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)24-31
Number of pages8
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019


  • Anticholinesterase
  • Genetic toxicology
  • Organophosphate poisoning
  • Paraoxonase 1
  • Polymorphisms

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology


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