Outcome of invasive electrophysiological procedures and gender: Are males and females the same?

Pasquale Santangeli, Luigi Di Biase, Gemma Pelargonio, Andrea Natale

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

45 Scopus citations


Outcome of Invasive Electrophysiological Procedures and Gender. The aim of this review is to summarize the available evidence on gender-related differences in outcome of invasive electrophysiological procedures. Gender exerts significant influences on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical presentation of many cardiac rhythm disorders. Women with supraventricular arrhythmias have a higher incidence of atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia, a lower prevalence of atrioventricular accessory pathways, and increased arrhythmia inducibility during luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Catheter ablation of supraventricular arrhythmias appears equally effective in the 2 genders, although women present to catheter ablation later, with more symptoms, and after having failed more antiarrhythmic drugs. The outcome of catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation in women has been reported worse than in men, which may be explained by a later referral. Accordingly, women present to catheter ablation with a higher incidence of long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation. Of note, the outcome of catheter ablation of atrial flutter does not seem to differ between genders. To date, with regard to ventricular arrhythmias, no gender-related differences in outcome of catheter ablation procedures have been reported. However, pathophysiology and risk factors underlying ventricular arrhythmias appear different in the two genders. Severe left ventricular dysfunction does not perform equally as a predictor for sudden cardiac death in women as compared to men, and the survival benefit of prophylactic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantation in women is inconclusive. On the other hand, the clinical outcome after cardiac resynchronization therapy seems to be more favorable in women, who experience a greater degree of reverse left ventricular remodeling. (J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol, Vol. 22, pp. 605-612 May 2011)

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)605-612
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of cardiovascular electrophysiology
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2011
Externally publishedYes


  • atrial fibrillation
  • cardiac resynchronization therapy
  • gender differences
  • implantable cardioverter defibrillator
  • radiofrequency catheter ablation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)


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