Oral human papillomavirus prevalence, persistence, and risk-factors in HIV-positive and HIV-negative adults

James Riddell, Andrew F. Brouwer, Heather M. Walline, Lora P. Campredon, Rafael Meza, Marisa C. Eisenberg, Emily C. Andrus, Rachel L. Delinger, Monica L. Yost, Jodi K. McCloskey, Trey B. Thomas, Suiyuan Huang, Robert L. Ferris, Dong Moon Shin, Carole Fakhry, Thomas Ow, Daniel Li, Ashley Berlot, Thomas E. Carey, Nicolas F. Schlecht

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Background: HIV has been shown to increase the likelihood of oral HPV infection. In this study, we evaluated the risk of oral HPV in HIV infected patients compared with HIV-negative controls. Methods: 101 healthy adult volunteers (HIV-) and 245 adults living with HIV infection (HIV+) were recruited from 5 academic medical centers. Questionnaires and saliva samples were obtained every 3–8 months over a period of 2 years (2015–2017). DNA was isolated from the saliva samples and tested for 18 high- and low-risk genotypes. Results: Oral HPV was detected in 23% of HIV + vs. 10% of HIV- participants (p < 0.0001). Men had a higher oral HPV prevalence than women (27% vs. 15% HIV+, p = 0.03, 16% vs. 5% HIV-, p = 0.01). Risk factors among HIV + participants included more lifetime deep kissing and oral sex partners, and history of AIDS. Persistent oral HPV was detected in 23% of HIV + vs. 5% of HIV- participants (p < 0.001). Among 8 HIV + participants with CD4 counts <200 cell/μL none had cleared their HPV infection during the study. Conclusions: Risk of oral HPV infection and persistence was significantly higher in HIV + adults with a history of poorly controlled HIV, which may put them at increased risk of HPV-associated cancer.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number200237
JournalTumour Virus Research
StatePublished - Jun 2022


  • HPV
  • HPV clearance
  • HPV prevalence
  • Human immunodeficiency virus
  • Human papillomavirus
  • Incidence
  • Oral cavity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Virology
  • Cancer Research
  • Medicine(all)


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