Novel Pharmacotherapies in Parkinson’s Disease

Yousef Tizabi, Bruk Getachew, Michael Aschner

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


Parkinson’s disease (PD), an age-related progressive neurodegenerative condition, is associated with loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), which results in motor deficits characterized by the following: akinesia, rigidity, resting tremor, and postural instability, as well as nonmotor symptoms such as emotional changes, particularly depression, cognitive impairment, gastrointestinal, and autonomic dysfunction. The most common treatment for PD is focused on dopamine (DA) replacement (e.g., levodopa = L-Dopa), which unfortunately losses its efficacy over months or years and can induce severe dyskinesia. Hence, more efficacious interventions without such adverse effects are urgently needed. In this review, following a general description of PD, potential novel therapeutic interventions for this devastating disease are examined. Specifically, the focus is on nicotine and nicotinic cholinergic system, as well as butyrate, a short chain fatty acid (SCFA), and fatty acid receptors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1381-1390
Number of pages10
JournalNeurotoxicity Research
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 2021


  • Butyrate
  • Combination therapy
  • Comorbidity
  • Depression
  • Nicotine
  • Parkinsonism
  • Short-chain fatty acids

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Neuroscience
  • Toxicology


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