Near-infrared and far-red genetically encoded indicators of neuronal activity

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Genetically encoded fluorescent indicators of neuronal activity are ultimately developed to dissect functions of neuronal ensembles during behavior in living animals. Recent development of near-infrared shifted calcium and voltage indicators moved us closer to this goal and enabled crosstalk-free combination with blue light-controlled optogenetic tools for all-optical control and readout. Here I discuss designs of recent near-infrared and far-red calcium and voltage indicators, compare their properties and performance, and overview their applications to spectral multiplexing and in vivo imaging. I also provide perspectives for further development.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number109314
JournalJournal of Neuroscience Methods
StatePublished - Oct 1 2021


  • All-optical electrophysiology
  • Calcium indicator
  • Far-red
  • GECI
  • GECO
  • GEVI
  • Near-infrared
  • Optogenetics
  • SomArchon
  • Voltage indicator
  • iGECI
  • miRFP

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)


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