National Disparities in Insurance Coverage of Comprehensive Craniomaxillofacial Trauma Care

Vikas S. Kotha, Brandon J. De Ruiter, Marvin Nicoleau, Edward H. Davidson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Background: Comprehensive craniomaxillofacial trauma care includes correcting functional deficits, addressing acquired deformities and appearance, and providing psychosocial support. The aim of this study was to characterize insurance coverage of surgical, medical, and psychosocial services indicated for longitudinal facial trauma care and highlight national discrepancies in policy. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of insurance coverage was performed for treatment of common functional, appearance, and psychosocial facial trauma sequelae. Policies were scored for coverage (3), case-by-case coverage (2), no mention (1), and exclusion (0). The sum of points determined coverage scores for functional sequelae, acquired-appearance sequelae, and psychosocial sequelae, the sum of which generated a Comprehensive Coverage Score. Results: Medicaid earned lower comprehensive coverage scores and lower coverage scores for psychosocial sequelae than did private insurance (P = 0.02, P = 0.02). Medicaid CCSs were lowest in Oklahoma, Arkansas, and Missouri. Private insurance CCSs and psychosocial sequelae were highest in Colorado and Delaware, and lowest in Wisconsin. Coverage scores for functional sequelae and for acquired-appearance sequelae were similar for Medicaid and private policies. Medicaid coverage scores were higher in states that opted into Medicaid expansion (P = 0.04), states with Democrat governors (P = 0.02), states with mandated paid leave (P = 0.01), and states with >40% total population living >400% above federal poverty (P = 0.03). Medicaid comprehensive coverage scores and coverage scores for psychosocial sequelae were lower in southeastern states. Private insurance coverage scores for functional sequelae and for ASCSs were lower in the Midwest. Conclusions: Insurance disparities in comprehensive craniomaxillofacial care coverage exist, particularly for psychosocial services. The disparities correlate with current state-level geopolitics. There is a uniform need to address national and state-specific differences in coverage from both Medicaid and private insurance policies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)E3237
JournalPlastic and Reconstructive Surgery - Global Open
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 1 2020
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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