Multisite prospective Liver Disease and Reproductive Ageing (LIVRA) study in US women living with and without HIV

Jennifer Price, Yifei Ma, Adaora Adimora, Margaret Fischl, Audrey L. French, Elizabeth T. Golub, Deborah Konkle-Parker, Mark H. Kuniholm, Ighovwerha Ofotokun, Michael Plankey, Anjali Sharma, Phyllis C. Tien

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


PURPOSE: The Liver Disease and Reproductive Ageing (LIVRA) study leverages the infrastructure of the decades-long multicentre prospective Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) to examine the contributions of HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV) and ageing to liver disease progression in women. PARTICIPANTS: From 2013 to 2018, LIVRA enrolled 1576 participants (77 HCV-seropositive only, 248 HIV/HCV-seropositive, 868 HIV-seropositive only and 383 HIV/HCV-seronegative) who underwent vibration controlled transient elastography (VCTE). A VCTE quality assurance programme was established to ensure consistency and accuracy for longitudinal assessment of steatosis (fatty liver) via the controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) and fibrosis via liver stiffness (LS). Demographic, lifestyle factors, anthropometry, clinical and medication history, host genetics, immune markers and hormone levels were collected as part of the WIHS. FINDINGS TO DATE: At baseline, 737 of 1543 women with CAP measurements had steatosis (CAP ≥248 dB/m) and 375 of 1576 women with LS measurements had significant fibrosis (LS ≥7.1 kPa), yielding a prevalence of 48% and 24%, respectively. On multivariable analysis, waist circumference (WC) and insulin resistance were independently associated with higher CAP (17.8 dB/m per 10 cm (95% CI:16.2 to 19.5) and 1.2 dB/m per doubling (95% CI:0.8 to 1.6), respectively). By contrast, HIV/HCV seropositivity and HCV seropositivity alone were associated with less steatosis compared with HIV/HCV-seronegative women, although the latter did not reach statistical significance (-9.2 dB/m (95% CI:-18.2 to -0.3) and -10.4 dB/m (95% CI: -23.8 to 3.1), respectively). Factors independently associated with higher LS were age (4.4% per 10 years (95% CI: 0.4% to 8.4%)), WC (5.0% per 10 cm (95% CI: 3.3% to 6.6%)), CAP steatosis (0.6% per 10 dB/m (95% CI: 0.1% to 1.0%)), HIV/HCV seropositivity (33% (95% CI: 24% to 44%)) and HCV seropositivity alone (43% (95% CI: 28% to 60%)). Excluding scans that were invalid based on traditional criteria for unreliability did not affect the results. FUTURE PLANS: Enrolled women undergo VCTE at 3-year intervals unless LS is ≥9.5 kPa, indicating advanced fibrosis, in which case VCTE is performed annually. Participants also undergo VCTE every 6 months until 18 months after HCV treatment initiation. Analysis of the data collected will provide insights into the impact of ageing/ovarian function, host genetics, immune function and contemporary HIV and HCV treatments on liver disease progression.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e055706
JournalBMJ open
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 7 2022


  • HIV & AIDS
  • hepatology
  • infectious diseases

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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