Microscopic methods for analysis of macrophage-induced tunneling nanotubes

Kiersten P. Carter, Jeffrey E. Segall, Dianne Cox

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

4 Scopus citations


Macrophages are known to play multiple roles in the breast cancer microenvironment including the promotion of tumor cell invasion that is dependent on soluble factors or through direct contact. Macrophages can also enhance the production of Tunneling Nanotubes (TNTs) in tumor cells which can be mimicked using macrophage-conditioned medium. TNTs are long thin F-actin structures that connect two or more cells together that have been found in many different cell types including macrophages and tumor cells and have been implicated in enhancing tumor cells functions, such as invasion. Here we describe basic procedures used to stimulate tumor cell TNT formation through macrophage-conditioned medium along with methods for quantifying TNTs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationMethods in Molecular Biology
PublisherHumana Press Inc.
Number of pages7
StatePublished - 2020

Publication series

NameMethods in Molecular Biology
ISSN (Print)1064-3745
ISSN (Electronic)1940-6029


  • Conditioned medium
  • Macrophages
  • Microscopy
  • Tumor cell
  • Tunneling nanotubes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics


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