Measurement properties of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D 10): Findings from HCHS/SOL

Patricia González, Alicia Nuñez, Erin Merz, Carrie Brintz, Orit Weitzman, Elena L. Navas, Alvaro Camacho, Christina Buelna, Frank J. Penedo, Sylvia Wassertheil-Smoller, Krista Perreira, Carmen R. Isasi, James Choca, Gregory A. Talavera, Linda C. Gallo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

148 Scopus citations


The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) is a widely used self-report measure of depression symptomatology. This study evaluated the reliability, validity, and measurement invariance of the CES-D 10 in a diverse cohort of Hispanics/Latinos from the Hispanic Community Health Study/ Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL). The sample consisted of 16,415 Hispanic/Latino adults recruited from 4 field centers (Miami, FL; San Diego, CA; Bronx, NY; Chicago, IL). Participants completed interview administered measures in English or Spanish. The CES-D 10 was examined for internal consistency, test-retest reliability, convergent validity, and measurement invariance. The total score for the CES-D 10 displayed acceptable internal consistencies (Cronbach's alpha's = .80 -.86) and test-retest reliability (r values = .41-.70) across the total sample, language group and ethnic background group. The total CES-D 10 scores correlated in a theoretically consistent manner with the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, r = .72, p < .001, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 depression measure, r = .80, p < .001, the Short Form-12's Mental Component Summary, r = -.65, p < .001, and Physical ComponentSummary score, r=-.25, p < .001. A confirmatory factor analysis showed that a 1-factor model fit the CES-D 10 data well (CFI = .986, RMSEA = .047) after correlating 1 pair of item residual variances. Multiple group analyses showed the 1-factor structure to be invariant across English and Spanish speaking responders and partially invariant across Hispanic/Latino background groups. The total score of the CES-D 10 can be recommended for use with Hispanics/Latinos in English and Spanish.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)372-381
Number of pages10
JournalPsychological Assessment
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2017


  • CES-D 10
  • Hispanics/Latinos
  • Measurement invariance
  • Reliability
  • Validity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


Dive into the research topics of 'Measurement properties of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D 10): Findings from HCHS/SOL'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this