Left ventricular early inflow-outflow index: a novel echocardiographic indicator of mitral regurgitation severity

Ming Ming Lee, Ayesha Salahuddin, Mario J. Garcia, Daniel M. Spevack

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND: No gold standard currently exists for quantification of mitral regurgitation (MR) severity. Classification by echocardiography is based on integrative criteria using color and spectral Doppler and anatomic measurements. We hypothesized that a simple Doppler left ventricular early inflow-outflow index (LVEIO), based on flow velocity into the left ventricle (LV) in diastole and ejected from the LV in systole, would add incrementally to current diagnostic criteria. LVEIO was calculated by dividing the mitral E-wave velocity by the LV outflow velocity time integral.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Transthoracic echocardiography reports from Montefiore Medical Center and its referring clinics from July 1, 2011, to December 31, 2011 (n=11 235) were reviewed. The MR severity reported by a cardiologist certified by the National Board of Echocardiography was used as a reference standard. Studies reporting moderate or severe MR (n=550) were reanalyzed to measure effective regurgitant orifice area by the proximal isovelocity surface area method, vena contracta width, MR jet area, and left-sided chamber volumes. LVEIO was 9.3±3.9, 7.0±3.2, and 4.2±1.7 among those with severe, moderate, and insignificant MR, respectively (ANOVA P<0.001). By receiver operating characteristic analysis, area under the curve for LVEIO was 0.92 for severe MR. Those with LVEIO ≥8 were likely to have severe MR (likelihood ratio 26.5), whereas those with LVEIO ≤4 were unlikely to have severe MR (likelihood ratio 0.11). LVEIO performed better in those with normal LV ejection fraction (≥50%) compared with those with reduced LV ejection fraction (<50%) (area under the curve 0.92 versus 0.80, P<0.001). By multivariate logistic regression analysis, LVEIO was independently associated with severe MR when compared with vena contracta width, MR jet area, and effective regurgitant orifice area measured by the proximal isovelocity surface area method.

CONCLUSION: LVEIO is a simple-to-use echocardiographic parameter that accurately identifies severe MR, particularly in patients with normal LV ejection fraction.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e000781
JournalJournal of the American Heart Association
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 12 2015


  • echocardiography
  • imaging
  • mitral valve
  • regurgitation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


Dive into the research topics of 'Left ventricular early inflow-outflow index: a novel echocardiographic indicator of mitral regurgitation severity'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this