Isolevuglandins (isoLGs) as toxic lipid peroxidation byproducts and their pathogenetic role in human diseases

Michael Aschner, Thuy T. Nguyen, Anton I. Sinitskii, Abel Santamaría, Julia Bornhorst, Olga P. Ajsuvakova, Joao Batista Texeira da Rocha, Anatoly V. Skalny, Alexey A. Tinkov

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Lipid peroxidation results in generation of a variety of lipid hydroperoxides and other highly reactive species that covalently modify proteins, nucleic acids, and other lipids, thus resulting in lipotoxicity. Although biological relevance of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and malondialdehyde (MDA) is well studied, the existing data on the role of isolevuglandins (isoLGs) in pathology are insufficient. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to review the existing data on biological effects of isoLG and isoLG adducts and their role in multiple diseases. Sixty four highly reactive levuglandin-like γ-ketoaldehyde (γ-KA, or isoketals, IsoK, or isolevuglandins, IsoLG) regio- and stereo-isomers are formed as products of arachidonic acid oxidation. IsoLGs react covalently with lysyl residues of proteins to form a stable adduct and intramolecular aminal, bispyrrole, and trispyrrole cross-links. Phosphatidylethanolamine was also shown to be the target for isoLG binding as compared to proteins and DNA. Free IsoLGs are not detectable in vivo, although isolevuglandin adduction to amino acid residues of particular proteins may be evaluated with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Adducts formed were shown to play a significant role in the development and maintenance of oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and inflammation. These, and more specific molecular pathways, link isoLG and isoLG-adduct formation to develop a variety of pathologies, including cardiovascular diseases (atherosclerosis, hypertension, heart failure), obesity and diabetes, cancer, neurodegeneration, eye diseases (retinal degeneration and glaucoma), as well as ageing. Hypothetically, isoLGs and isoLG adduct formation may be considered as the potential target for treatment of oxidative stress-related diseases.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)266-273
Number of pages8
JournalFree Radical Biology and Medicine
StatePublished - Jan 2021


  • Cardiovascular diseases
  • Inflammation
  • Isoketals
  • Isoprostane
  • Oxidative stress

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Physiology (medical)


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