Intracellular tenofovir and emtricitabine concentrations in younger and older women with HIV receiving tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine

Julie B. Dumond, Camden P. Bay, Julie A.E. Nelson, Angel Davalos, Andrew Edmonds, Kristina de Paris, Craig Sykes, Kathryn Anastos, Roopali Sharma, Seble Kassaye, Bani Tamraz, Audrey L. French, Stephen Gange, Ighovwerha Ofotokun, Margaret A. Fischl, David E. Vance, Adaora A. Adimora

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


The altered immune states of aging and HIV infection may affect intracellular metabolism of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and emtricitabine (FTC); increased cellular senescence decreases FTC-triphosphate (FTCtp) concentrations. The effects of age and inflammation on the ratio of intracellular metabolites (IMs; tenofovir diphosphate [TFVdp] and FTCtp) to their endogenous nucleotides (ENs; dATP and dCTP), a potential treatment efficacy marker, were assessed among participants of the Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), who ranged from 25 to 75 years. Samples from women receiving TDF-FTC with viral loads of <200 copies/ml were dichotomized by age at collection into two groups (≤45 years and ≥60 years). IM/EN concentrations were measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) pellets; interleukin-6 (IL-6) and sCD163 were measured in plasma; senescent CD8+ T cells were measured in viable PBMCs. The TFVdp:dATP and FTCtp:dCTP ratios had statistically significantly different distributions in older and younger women (log-rank test, P = 0.0023 and P = 0.032, respectively); in general, IM and EN concentrations were higher in the older women. After adjusting for potential confounders, these findings were not significant. In women aged ≤45 years, TFVdp was negatively associated with IL-6 and sCD163, while FTCtp was positively associated with sCD163 and IL-6 in women aged ≥60 years. Body mass index (BMI) was positively associated with IL-6 in both age groups and negatively associated with TFVdp in women aged ≤45 years. After adjustment, age remained significant for sCD163, while black race, BMI, and renal function remained significant for several IMs and ENs, suggesting that factors associated with aging, but not age itself, govern intracellular TDF-FTC pharmacology.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere00177-20
JournalAntimicrobial agents and chemotherapy
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2020


  • Aging
  • Emtricitabine
  • Human immunodeficiency virus
  • Intracellular drug concentration
  • Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor
  • Tenofovir

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases


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