Inpatient admissions and costs for adolescents and young adults with congenital heart defects in New York, 2009–2013

Wan Hsiang Hsu, Kristin M. Sommerhalter, Claire E. McGarry, Sherry L. Farr, Karrie F. Downing, George K. Lui, Ali N. Zaidi, Daphne T. Hsu, Alissa R. Van Zutphen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Objectives: Most individuals born with congenital heart defects (CHDs) survive to adulthood, but healthcare utilization patterns for adolescents and adults with CHDs have not been well described. We sought to characterize the healthcare utilization patterns and associated costs for adolescents and young adults with CHDs. Methods: We examined 2009–2013 New York State inpatient admissions of individuals ages 11–30 years with ≥1 CHD diagnosis codes recorded during any admission. We conducted multivariate linear regression using generalized estimating equations to examine associations between inpatient costs and sociodemographic and clinical variables. Results: We identified 5,100 unique individuals with 9,593 corresponding hospitalizations over the study period. Median inpatient cost and length of stay (LOS) were $10,720 and 3.0 days per admission, respectively; 55.1% were emergency admissions. Admission volume increased 48.7% from 2009 (1,538 admissions) to 2013 (2,287 admissions), while total inpatient costs increased 91.8% from 2009 ($27.2 million) to 2013 ($52.2 million). Inpatient admissions and costs rose more sharply over the study period for those with nonsevere CHDs compared to severe CHDs. Characteristics associated with higher costs were longer LOS, severe CHD, cardiac/vascular hospitalization classification, surgical procedures, greater severity of illness, and admission in New York City. Conclusion: This study provides an informative baseline of health care utilization patterns and associated costs among adolescents and young adults with CHDs in New York State. Structured transition programs may aid in keeping this population in appropriate cardiac care as they move to adulthood.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)173-188
Number of pages16
JournalBirth Defects Research
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jan 15 2021


  • adolescents and young adults
  • congenital heart defects
  • hospital utilization
  • hospitalizations
  • inpatient cost

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Embryology
  • Toxicology
  • Developmental Biology
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


Dive into the research topics of 'Inpatient admissions and costs for adolescents and young adults with congenital heart defects in New York, 2009–2013'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this