A broad spectrum of pathogens produce gastrointestinal disease. The ongoing spread of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome, the increased use of immunosuppressive therapy and the persistence of overcrowding and suboptimal sanitation in underdeveloped areas facilitate both disease transmission from environmental and foodborne sources and person-to-person transmission. Clinicians increasingly rely on endoscopic biopsy sample interpretation to diagnose gastrointestinal infections. Thus, pathologists must be aware of diagnostic features of a variety of microbial pathogens. Detection with molecular techniques also allows for correlation between infectious agents and their histopathological features, which has expanded our knowledge of the inflammatory changes produced by infectious agents. This review covers infectious disorders of the upper gastrointestinal tract encountered in surgical pathology. Clinical, endoscopic and pathological features are presented. The review emphasises morphological features of viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites that may be found in tissue samples, and the inflammatory patterns that they produce. Differential diagnoses and useful ancillary techniques are discussed.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine