Induction and stability of the anergic phenotype in T cells

Rut Valdor, Fernando Macian

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

42 Scopus citations


One of the mechanisms that are in place to control the activation of mature T cells that bear self-reactive antigen receptors is anergy, a long-term state of hyporesponsiveness that is established in T cells in response to suboptimal stimulation. T cells receive signals that result not only from antigen recognition and costimulation but also from other sources, including cytokine receptors, inhibitory receptors or metabolic sensors. Integration of those signals will determine T cell fate. Under conditions that induce anergy, T cells activate a program of gene expression that leads to the production of proteins that block T cell receptor signaling and inhibit cytokine gene expression. In this review we will examine those signals that determine functional outcome following antigen encounter, review current knowledge of the factors that ensure signaling inhibition and epigenetic gene silencing in anergic cells and explore the mechanisms that lead to the reversal of anergy and the reacquisition of effector functions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)313-320
Number of pages8
JournalSeminars in Immunology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Nov 15 2013


  • Anergy induction
  • Anergy reversal
  • Epigenetics
  • NFAT

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


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