Background: This study investigated the incidences and risk factors associated with new-onset persistent type-2 diabetes during COVID-19 hospitalization and at 3-months follow-up compared to influenza. Methods: This retrospective study consisted of 8216 hospitalized, 2998 non-hospitalized COVID-19 patients, and 2988 hospitalized influenza patients without history of pre-diabetes or diabetes in the Montefiore Health System in Bronx, New York. The primary outcomes were incidences of new-onset in-hospital type-2 diabetes mellitus (I-DM) and persistent diabetes mellitus (P-DM) at 3 months (average) follow-up. Predictive models used 80%/20% of data for training/testing with five-fold cross-validation. Findings: I-DM was diagnosed in 22.6% of patients with COVID-19 compared to only 3.3% of patients with influenza (95% CI of difference [0.18, 0.20]). COVID-19 patients with I-DM compared to those without I-DM were older, more likely male, more likely to be treated with steroids and had more comorbidities. P-DM was diagnosed in 16.7% of hospitalized COVID-19 patients versus 12% of hospitalized influenza patients (95% CI of difference [0.03,0.065]) but only 7.3% of non-hospitalized COVID-19 patients (95% CI of difference [0.078,0.11]). The rates of P-DM significantly decreased from 23.9% to 4.0% over the studied period. Logistic regression identified similar risk factors predictive of P-DM for COVID-19 and influenza. The adjusted odds ratio (0.90 [95% CI 0.64,1.28]) for developing P-DM was not significantly different between the two viruses. Interpretation: The incidence of new-onset type-2 diabetes was higher in patients with COVID-19 than influenza. Increased risk of diabetes associated with COVID-19 is mediated through disease severity, which plays a dominant role in the development of this post-acute infection sequela. Funding: None.
- Cytokine storm
- Predictive model
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)