ICUD-EAU international consultation on bladder cancer 2012: Radical cystectomy and bladder preservation for muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder

Georgios Gakis, Jason Efstathiou, Seth P. Lerner, Michael S. Cookson, Kirk A. Keegan, Khurshid A. Guru, William U. Shipley, Axel Heidenreich, Mark P. Schoenberg, Arthur I. Sagaloswky, Mark S. Soloway, Arnulf Stenzl

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

324 Scopus citations


Context: New guidelines of the International Consultation on Urological Diseases for the treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) have recently been published. Objective: To provide a comprehensive overview of the current role of radical cystectomy (RC) in MIBC. Evidence acquisition: A detailed Medline analysis was performed for original articles addressing the role of RC with regard to indication, timing, surgical extent, perioperative morbidity, oncologic outcome, and follow-up. The analysis also included radiation-based bladder-preserving strategies. Evidence synthesis: The major findings are presented in an evidence-based fashion and are based on large retrospective unicenter and multicenter series with some prospective data. Conclusions: Open RC is the standard treatment for locoregional control of MIBC. Delay of RC is associated with reduced cancer-specific survival. In males, standard RC includes the removal of the bladder, prostate, seminal vesicles, and distal ureters; in females, RC includes an anterior pelvic exenteration including the bladder, entire urethra and adjacent vagina, uterus, and distal ureters. A procedure sparing the urethra and the urethra-supplying autonomous nerves can be performed in case of a planned orthotopic neobladder. Further technical variations (ie, seminal-sparing or vaginal-sparing techniques) aimed at improving functional outcomes must be weighed against the risk of a positive margin. Laparoscopic surgery is promising, but long-term data are required prior to accepting it as an option equivalent to the open procedure. Lymphadenectomy should remove all lymphatic tissue around the common iliac, external iliac, internal iliac, and obturator region bilaterally. Complications after RC should be reported according to the modified Clavien grading system. In selected patients with MIBC, bladder-preserving therapy with cystectomy reserved for tumor recurrence represents a safe and effective alternative to immediate RC.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)45-57
Number of pages13
JournalEuropean Urology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Bladder cancer
  • Bladder preservation
  • Guidelines
  • Radical cystectomy
  • Recommendations

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


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