Iatrogenic Ventricular Septal Defect Following Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: A Systematic Review

Tomo Ando, Anthony A. Holmes, Cynthia C. Taub, David P. Slovut, Joseph J. DeRose

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

31 Scopus citations


Background Ventricular septal defects (VSD) are rarely reported as a complication following transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). We sought to characterise the patients, clinical management, and outcomes regarding this rare phenomenon. Methods Relevant articles were identified by a systematic search of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases from January, 2002 to September, 2015. Results A total of 18 case reports, including 20 patients, were identified. The median age was 83 years and six were male. Twelve were performed by trans-femoral approach. Pre-dilation was performed in 12 patients and post-dilation in four. Balloon expandable valves were used in the majority (85%) of cases. The clinical presentation varied from asymptomatic to progressive heart failure. The timing of the diagnosis also varied significantly from immediately post valve implantation to one year afterwards. There were two cases of Gerbode-type defect while the rest were inter-ventricular defects. The location was mostly membranous or perimembranous (79%) and adjacent to the valve landing zone. A total of seven interventions (one open surgery and six percutaneous closure) were performed. Four patients died during the same hospital admission. Sixteen survived past discharge (range 12 days to two years). Conclusions Ventricular septal defects post-TAVR were seen more with balloon expandable valves and with pre-dilation or post-dilation. Percutaneous treatment of the VSD was preferred over open cardiac surgery given the high surgical risk in this patient population. Some, but not all, patients survived TAVR and VSD and had a good prognosis for both patient groups with or without VSD closure.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)968-974
Number of pages7
JournalHeart Lung and Circulation
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 1 2016


  • Aortic stenosis
  • Transcatheter aortic valve replacement
  • Ventricular septal defect

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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