Hypertension and one-year risk of all-cause mortality among women with treated HIV in the United States

Leah M. Sadinski, Daniel Westreich, Andrew Edmonds, Tiffany L. Breger, Stephen R. Cole, Catalina Ramirez, Todd T. Brown, Igho Ofotokun, Deborah Konkle-Parker, Seble Kassaye, Deborah L. Jones, Gypsyamber D'Souza, Mardge H. Cohen, Phyllis C. Tien, Tonya N. Taylor, Kathryn Anastos, Adaora A. Adimora

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective:Hypertension is a critical cause of cardiovascular disease, and women with HIV have a higher prevalence of hypertension than women without HIV. The relationship between hypertension and mortality has not been well characterized in women with treated HIV. Here, we estimate the effect of hypertension on 1-year risk of all-cause mortality among women with HIV on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the United States.Design:An analysis of multicenter, observational cohort data from the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) collected between 1995 and 2019.Methods:We included women with HIV who reported ever using ART. We used parametric g-computation to estimate the effect of hypertension (SBP ≥140  mmHg, DBP ≥90 mmHg, or use of hypertensive medication) on all-cause mortality within 1 year of a WIHS visit.Results:Among 2929 unique women, we included 57 034 visits with a median age of 45 (interquartile range: 39, 52) years. Women had hypertension at 34.5% of visits, and 641 deaths occurred within 1 year of a study visit. Comparing women at visits with hypertension to women at visits without hypertension, the standardized 1-year risk ratio for mortality was 1.16 [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.01-1.33]. The risk ratios were higher in Hispanic (risk ratio: 1.23, 95% CI: 0.86-1.77) and non-Hispanic black women (risk ratio: 1.19, 95% CI: 1.04-1.37) and lower in non-Hispanic white women (risk ratio: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.58-1.48).Conclusion:Among women with treated HIV, those with hypertension, compared with those without, had an increased 1-year risk of all-cause mortality.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)679-688
Number of pages10
Issue number4
StatePublished - Mar 15 2023


  • HIV
  • antiretroviral therapy
  • chronic comorbidities
  • cohort study
  • epidemiology
  • hypertension
  • mortality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Infectious Diseases


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