Higher neighborhood population density is associated with lower potassium intake in the hispanic community health study/study of latinos (Hchs/sol)

David B. Hanna, Simin Hua, Franklyn Gonzalez, Kiarri N. Kershaw, Andrew G. Rundle, Linda V. Van Horn, Judith Wylie-Rosett, Marc D. Gellman, Gina S. Lovasi, Robert C. Kaplan, Yasmin Mossavar-Rahmani, Pamela A. Shaw

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Current U.S. dietary guidelines recommend a daily potassium intake of 3400 mg/day for men and 2600 mg/day for women. Sub-optimal access to nutrient-rich foods may limit potassium intake and increase cardiometabolic risk. We examined the association of neighborhood characteristics related to food availability with potassium intake in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL). 13,835 participants completed a 24-h dietary recall assessment and had complete covariates. Self-reported potassium intake was calibrated with an objective 24-h urinary potassium biomarker, using equations developed in the SOL Nutrition & Physical Activity Assessment Study (SOLNAS, N = 440). Neighborhood population density, median household in-come, Hispanic/Latino diversity, and a retail food environment index by census tract were obtained. Linear regression assessed associations with 24-h potassium intake, adjusting for individual-level and neighborhood confounders. Mean 24-h potassium was 2629 mg/day based on the SOLNAS biomarker and 2702 mg/day using multiple imputation and HCHS/SOL biomarker calibration. Compared with the lowest quartile of neighborhood population density, living in the highest quartile was associated with a 26% lower potassium intake in SOLNAS (adjusted fold-change 0.74, 95% CI 0.59–0.94) and a 39% lower intake in HCHS/SOL (adjusted fold-change 0.61 95% CI 0.45–0.84). Results were only partially explained by the retail food environment. The mechanisms by which population density affects potassium intake should be further studied.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number10716
JournalInternational journal of environmental research and public health
Issue number20
StatePublished - Oct 1 2021


  • Built environment
  • Food environment
  • Hispanic Americans
  • Latinos
  • Neighborhood
  • Nutrition
  • Population density
  • Potassium
  • Regression calibration

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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