High-resolution multi-photon imaging of morphological structures of Caenorhabditis elegans

Gabriele M. Bixel, Stephanie J.B. Fretham, Michael Aschner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


In this protocol, we combine two-photon excitation fluorescence with nonlinear optical measurements to reconstruct the three-dimensional architecture of the pharyngeal region and the muscular system of the anterior and mid-body region of Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Femto-second laser pulses excite second-harmonic generation (SHG) and third-harmonic generation (THG) signals, which show detailed structural information regarding the organization of myofibrils that are arranged around the central pharynx region. The combination of two-photon excitation with SHG and THG imaging is a very powerful tool to study cell morphology, microarchitecture, and tissue arrangement in C. elegans.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)11.19.1-11.19.11
JournalCurrent protocols in toxicology
StatePublished - 2015


  • C. elegans
  • Label-free imaging
  • Multi-photon microscopy
  • SHG
  • THG

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology


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