BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) has been increasing in prevalence, and a need exists for biomarkers with improved predictive and prognostic ability. GDF-15 (growth differentiation factor-15) is a novel biomarker associated with HF mortality, but no serial studies of GDF-15 have been conducted. This study aimed to investigate the association between GDF-15 levels over time and the occurrence of ventricular arrhythmias, HF hospitalizations, and all-cause mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used a retrospective case–control design to analyze 148 patients with ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathies and primary prevention implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) from the PROSe-ICD (Prospective Observational Study of the ICD in Sudden Cardiac Death Prevention) cohort. Patients had blood drawn every 6 months and after each appropriate ICD therapy and were followed for a median follow-up of 4.6 years, between 2005 to 2019. We compared serum GDF-15 levels within ±90 days of an event among those with a ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation event requiring ICD therapies and those hospitalized for decompensated HF. A comparator/control group comprised patients with GDF-15 levels available during 2-year follow-up periods without events. Median follow-up was 4.6 years in the 148 patients studied (mean age 58±12, 27% women). The HF cohort had greater median GDF-15 values within 90 days (1797 pg/mL) and 30 days (2039 pg/mL) compared with the control group (1062 pg/mL, both P<0.0001). No difference was found between the ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation subgroup within 90 days (1173 pg/mL, P=0.60) or 30 days (1173 pg/mL, P=0.78) and the control group. GDF-15 was also significantly predictive of mortality (hazard ratio, 3.17 [95% CI, 2.33–4.30]). CONCLUSIONS: GDF-15 levels are associated with HF hospitalization and mortality but not ventricular arrhythmic events.
- heart failure
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine