Ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) for fetal neck masses: A tertiary center experience and literature review

Sydney Jiang, Catherina Yang, John Bent, Christina J. Yang, Mona Gangar, Michel Nassar, Barrie Suskin, Peer Dar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


Objective: Currently no established criteria exist to guide use of ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) for fetal neck mass management. This study aims to correlate prenatal radiographic findings with incidence of ex utero intrapartum treatment and necessity of airway intervention at delivery. Methods: We reviewed our EXIT experience between 2012 and 17. Furthermore, we performed a literature review of articles reporting incidences of fetal neck masses considered for EXIT. Articles that were included (1) discussed prenatal radiographic findings such as size, features, and evidence of compression and (2) reported extractable data on delivery outcomes and airway status. Results: Ten cases at our institution were reviewed. Another 137 cases across 81 studies met inclusion criteria. These studies showed aerodigestive tract compression to be significantly associated with neck masses undergoing EXIT. Additionally, there was significantly higher incidence of airway intervention in cases where polyhydramnios, anatomic compression, and solid masses were seen on prenatal diagnostic imaging, while mass location and size did not correlate with airway intervention. Conclusion: With this data, we propose that any neck mass with anatomic compression on fetal imaging in the 3rd trimester should be considered for EXIT. When radiographic findings do not show compression but do display polyhydramnios or a solid neck mass (regardless of polyhydramnios), an airway surgeon should be available for perinatal airway assistance.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number109642
JournalInternational journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology
StatePublished - Dec 2019


  • Airway (non-sleep)
  • Congenital neck mass
  • EXIT
  • Ex utero intrapartum treatment
  • Radiology
  • Vascular anomalies

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Otorhinolaryngology


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