Endoscopic modified Lothrop procedure after failure of primary endoscopic sinus surgery: A meta-analysis

Waleed M. Abuzeid, Mayand Vakil, Juan Lin, Judd Fastenberg, Nadeem A. Akbar, Marvin P. Fried, Christina H. Fang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


Background: The endoscopic modified Lothrop procedure (EMLP) has been used as a salvage technique for frontal sinusitis following failed endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). We aim to examine the safety and efficacy of the EMLP following failure of primary ESS. Methods: All English-language publications from 2000 to 2016 reporting the use of EMLP after primary ESS were identified using the PubMed database and evaluated per Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Random effects summaries of patient demographics, comorbidities, and surgical outcomes were obtained through meta-analysis. Results: Eleven studies constituting 778 patients were included and 86.5% had chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Mean follow-up duration was 28.4 months. The mean number of surgeries prior to EMLP was 3.5. Symptom improvement was reported in 82.3%. Subgroup analysis of 7 studies in which all 357 patients had CRS revealed a mean follow-up of 31.5 months. Symptom improvement occurred in 75.9% of cases and 23.1% experienced polyp recurrence. The cerebrospinal fluid leak rate was 2.5%. Restenosis of the neo-ostium occurred in 17.1% with complete closure occurring in 3.9% of cases. The reoperation rate after EMLP was 9.0%. Aspirin sensitivity was associated with an increased risk of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak (p = 0.0339) and a reduced incidence of neo-ostium closure (p = 0.0001). Aspirin sensitivity and asthma were associated with a reduced incidence of reoperation (p ≤ 0.001) and increased symptom improvement (p < 0.005). Restenosis or closure of the frontal neo-ostium was associated with less symptom improvement (p < 0.04) but not with reoperation. Conclusion: The EMLP is an effective salvage procedure for refractory frontal sinusitis based on data from higher-volume centers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalInternational Forum of Allergy and Rhinology
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2017


  • Draf 3
  • Draf III
  • EMLP
  • Endoscopic modified Lothrop procedure
  • Endoscopic sinus surgery
  • Modified Lothrop procedure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Otorhinolaryngology


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