Endocrine complications are highly prevalent in childhood cancer survivors. Approximately 50% of survivors will experience at least one hormonal disorder over the course of their lives. Endocrine complications often are observed in survivors previously treated with radiation to the head, neck, or pelvis. We provide an overview the most common endocrine late effects seen in survivors, including hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction, primary thyroid dysfunction, obesity, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, and decreased bone mineral density. Primary gonadal injury is discussed elsewhere in this series. Given a variable latency interval, a systematic approach where individuals are periodically screened on the basis of their risk factors can help to improve health outcomes by prompt diagnosis and treatment of evolving endocrinopathies. These recommendations must be revised in the future given changes and improvements in cancer treatment over time.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research