Effects of hepatitis C virus infection on menopause status and symptoms

Kinga Cieloszyk, Diana Hartel, Galina Moskaleva, Ellie E. Schoenbaum

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Objective: To examine the relationship between hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with menopause status and vasomotor symptoms among middle-aged, impoverished women. Methods: The baseline interview and laboratory data from a study on menopause were used for a cross-sectional analysis of HCV antibody and HCV-RNA levels and their relationship to menopause status and symptoms, using logistic regression. For HCV-infected and HCV-uninfected women, menopause status was defined according to the World Health Organization criteria. Results: Of 559 participants, 48% were black, 38.6% were Hispanic, and 267 (47.8%) were HCV seropositive; of these, 189 (72.1%) had detectable HCV-RNA levels. The median age was 43 years [interquartile range (IQR), 40-46 years]; 50.2Q of the women were premenopausal, 31.8% were perimenopausal, and 18% were postmenopausal. Median age at natural menopause was 46 years (IQR, 42.25-49 years) in HCV-infected women compared with 47 years (IQR, 40.25-48 years) in uninfected controls. Women infected with HCV were more likely to be postmenopausal than were uninfected women (adjusted odds ratio [OR adj], 1.68; 95% CI, 1.02-2.77). Human immunodeficiency virus status (OR adj, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.04-2.75), drug use (OR adj, 2.34; 95% CI, 1.42-3.86), and nulliparity (OR adj, 2.74; 95% CI, 1.42-5.29) were independently associated with natural menopause, whereas being more physically active (OR adj, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.85-0.95) was inversely associated with menopause. Women infected with HCV were more likely than uninfected women to report vasomotor symptoms (OR adj, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.06-2.18). Conclusions: Hepatitis C virus infection is independently associated with natural menopause, controlling for age. In addition, HCV was associated with vasomotor symptoms. Further studies are warranted to better understand the menopausal transition in HCV-infected women.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)401-406
Number of pages6
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 2009


  • Depression
  • Hepatitis C virus
  • Liver fibrosis
  • Menopause
  • Vasomotor symptoms

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynecology


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