E Proteins and ID Proteins: Helix-Loop-Helix Partners in Development and Disease

Lan Hsin Wang, Nicholas E. Baker

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

100 Scopus citations


The basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) proteins represent a well-known class of transcriptional regulators. Many bHLH proteins act as heterodimers with members of a class of ubiquitous partners, the E proteins. A widely expressed class of inhibitory heterodimer partners-the Inhibitor of DNA-binding (ID) proteins-also exists. Genetic and molecular analyses in humans and in knockout mice implicate E proteins and ID proteins in a wide variety of diseases, belying the notion that they are non-specific partner proteins. Here, we explore relationships of E proteins and ID proteins to a variety of disease processes and highlight gaps in knowledge of disease mechanisms.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)269-280
Number of pages12
JournalDevelopmental cell
Issue number3
StatePublished - Nov 9 2015


  • Arterial vascular disease
  • Atherosclerosis
  • Cell-cycle regulation
  • Cellular senescence
  • Congenital hydronephrosis
  • Development
  • Diabetes
  • Differentiation
  • Disease
  • E protein
  • Fuchs corneal dystrophy
  • Helix-Loop-Helix protein
  • ID protein
  • Mammary gland
  • Neuronal morphogenesis
  • Osteoporosis
  • Parkinson's disease
  • Pitt-Hopkins syndrome
  • Pulmonary arterial hypertension
  • Rett syndrome
  • Schizophrenia
  • Sertoli cell
  • Sjogren's syndrome
  • Trophoblast

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Developmental Biology
  • Cell Biology


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