Directed molecular evolution to design advanced red fluorescent proteins

Fedor V. Subach, Kiryl D. Piatkevich, Vladislav V. Verkhusha

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

61 Scopus citations


Fluorescent proteins have become indispensable imaging tools for biomedical research. Continuing progress in fluorescence imaging, however, requires probes with additional colors and properties optimized for emerging techniques. Here we summarize strategies for development of red-shifted fluorescent proteins. We discuss possibilities for knowledge-based rational design based on the photochemistry of fluorescent proteins and the position of the chromophore in protein structure. We consider advances in library design by mutagenesis, protein expression systems and instrumentation for high-throughput screening that should yield improved fluorescent proteins for advanced imaging applications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1019-1026
Number of pages8
JournalNature Methods
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2011

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology


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