Consensus guidelines for the perioperative management of patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

Omid Azimaraghi, Mohammad Bilal, Somchai Amornyotin, Mustafa Arain, Matthias Behrends, Tyler M. Berzin, James L. Buxbaum, Curtis Choice, Philipp Fassbender, Mandeep S. Sawhney, Eswar Sundar, Karuna Wongtangman, Kate Leslie, Matthias Eikermann

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Deep sedation without tracheal intubation (monitored anaesthesia care) and general anaesthesia with tracheal intubation are commonly used anaesthesia techniques for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). There are distinct pathophysiological differences between monitored anaesthesia care and general anaesthesia that need to be considered depending on the nature and severity of the patient's underlying disease, comorbidities, and procedural risks. An international group of expert anaesthesiologists and gastroenterologists created clinically relevant questions regarding the merits and risks of monitored anaesthesia care vs general anaesthesia in specific clinical scenarios for planning optimal anaesthetic approaches for ERCP. Using a modified Delphi approach, the group created practical recommendations for anaesthesiologists, with the aim of reducing the incidence of perioperative adverse outcomes while maximising healthcare resource utilisation. In the majority of clinical scenarios analysed, our expert recommendations favour monitored anaesthesia care over general anaesthesia. Patients with increased risk of pulmonary aspiration and those undergoing prolonged procedures of high complexity were thought to benefit from general anaesthesia with tracheal intubation. Patient age and ASA physical status were not considered to be factors for choosing between monitored anaesthesia care and general anaesthesia. Monitored anaesthesia care is the favoured anaesthesia plan for ERCP. An individual risk–benefit analysis that takes into account provider and institutional experience, patient comorbidities, and procedural risks is also needed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)763-772
Number of pages10
JournalBritish Journal of Anaesthesia
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2023


  • ERCP
  • general anaesthesia
  • guideline
  • hypotension
  • hypoxaemia
  • monitored anaesthesia care
  • perioperative outcomes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine


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