Consensus for Thoracoscopic Left Upper Lobectomy—Essential Components and Targets for Simulation

Darren S. Bryan, Mark K. Ferguson, Mara B. Antonoff, Leah M. Backhus, Thomas J. Birdas, Shanda H. Blackmon, Daniel J. Boffa, Andrew C. Chang, Gary W. Chmielewski, David T. Cooke, Jessica S. Donington, Henning A. Gaissert, Jeffrey A. Hagen, Wayne L. Hofstetter, Michael S. Kent, Ki Wan Kim, Seth B. Krantz, Jules Lin, Linda W. Martin, Shari L. MeyersonJohn D. Mitchell, Daniela Molena, David D. Odell, Mark W. Onaitis, Varun Puri, Joe B. Putnam, Christopher W. Seder, Joseph B. Shrager, Harmik J. Soukiasian, Brendon M. Stiles, Betty C. Tong, Nirmal K. Veeramachaneni

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Background: Simulation-based training is a valuable component of cardiothoracic surgical education. Effective curriculum development requires consensus on procedural components and focused attention on specific learning objectives. Through use of a Delphi process, we established consensus on the steps of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) left upper lobectomy and identified targets for simulation. Methods: Experienced thoracic surgeons were randomly selected for participation. Surgeons voted and commented on the necessity of individual steps comprising VATS left upper lobectomy. Steps with greater than 80% of participants in agreement of their necessity were determined to have established “consensus.” Participants voted on the physical or cognitive complexity of each, or both, and chose steps most amenable to focused simulation. Results: Thirty thoracic surgeons responded and joined in the voting process. Twenty operative steps were identified, with surgeons reaching consensus on the necessity of 19. Components deemed most difficult and amenable to simulation included those related to dissection and division of the bronchus, artery, and vein. Conclusions: Through a Delphi process, surgeons with a variety of practice patterns can achieve consensus on the operative steps of left upper lobectomy and agreement on those most appropriate for simulation. This information can be implemented in the development of targeted simulation for VATS lobectomy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)436-442
Number of pages7
JournalAnnals of Thoracic Surgery
Issue number2
StatePublished - Aug 2021
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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