Concomitant Cervical Spine Injuries in Pediatric Maxillofacial Trauma: An 11 Year Review of the National Trauma Data Bank

Jinesh Shah, Fei Wang, Joseph A. Ricci

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Purpose: Craniofacial trauma with concomitant cervical fractures (CCFs) is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in the pediatric population. We aim to characterize its incidence, injury patterns, outcomes, and risk factors, along with identifying any association between mandible fractures and cervical injuries via the National Trauma Databank. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed using National Trauma Databank records between 2007 and 2017 to identify patients equal or under the age of 18 years hospitalized for maxillofacial trauma and with recorded cervical injury. Variables of interest include age, gender, race/ethnicity, trauma type (blunt vs penetrating), Injury Severity Score, area involved, mechanism of injury, comorbid conditions, inpatient complications, and discharge disposition. Retrospective cohorts were separated by CCF status. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariable regression analysis was utilized, with P-value <.05 considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 32,952 patients were included in the study, with the majority being White (60.8%), male (68.2%), and between the ages of 13 and 18 years (65%). Of these, 8.2% experienced CCF. Most common mechanisms of injury were motor vehicle trauma (32.6%), interpersonal violence (18.8%), and falls (13.5%). Univariate analysis revealed patients with CCF were significantly older (15.2 vs 12.9; P < .001), more likely to be motor vehicle occupants (46.6 vs 31.9%; P < .001), and suffer polyfacial fractures (62.6 vs 60.7%; P < .001). Longer length of stay (9.4 vs 3.6 days; P < .001) and significantly higher inpatient complications such as deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, unplanned intubation, severe sepsis, pressure ulcer, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and unplanned return to operating room were observed in the CCF cohort. Female gender (1.5 [1.37 to 1.64; 95% confidence interval {CI}] P < .001) and higher Injury Severity Score (1.12 [1.11 to 1.11; 95% CI] P < .001) were associated with significantly higher odds on multivariable analysis. The presence of a mandible fracture was not associated with increased CCF on multivariate analysis (1.06 [0.92 to 1.22; 95% CI] P = .36). Conclusions: There are statistically significant differences in demographics, outcomes, and injury patterns in maxillofacial patients with CCF that may help guide treatment. No association between mandible fractures and cervical trauma was identified.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)413-423
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2023

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Oral Surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngology


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