Background: Information on the clinical and echocardiographic characteristics of young patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction is scant, especially among racially diverse populations. Methods: Patients admitted to Montefiore Medical Center between 2000 and 2016 with heart failure and ejection fraction of <40% were categorized as young (18-39 years), middle-aged (40-64 years), and elderly (≥65 years). Multivariable Cox regression models were used to evaluate mortality risk. Results: A total of 1032 young, 8336 middle-aged, and 13,315 elderly patients were included. Median follow-up was 36 (14-69) months. The young group had more black individuals, lower socioeconomic scores, larger left ventricular chambers, but lower N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide levels (P < 0.001). Better survival outcomes were observed in the young compared to the middle-aged [hazard ratio (HR), 1.52; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.31-1.77] and elderly (HR, 3.19; 95% CI, 2.75-3.70). After multivariable adjustments, only β-blockers were associated with a significant reduction of mortality in young patients (HR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.22-0.51). Conclusion: In conclusion, young patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction have distinct demographic, clinical, and echocardiographic characteristics. They had lower socioeconomic status yet received more aggressive treatments and had lower mortality rates. Only β-blockers were associated with improved survival in young patients from our cohort.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine