Class-Specific Incidence of All-Cause Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease: A Latent Class Approach

Andrea R. Zammit, Charles B. Hall, Mindy J. Katz, Graciela Muniz-Terrera, Ali Ezzati, David A. Bennett, Richard B. Lipton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Identifying preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an important step toward developing approaches to early treatment and dementia prevention. We applied latent class analysis (LCA) to 10 baseline neuropsychological assessments for 1,345 participants from Einstein Aging Study. Time-to-event models for all-cause dementia and AD were run examining events in 4-year intervals. Five classes were identified: Mixed-Domain Impairment (n = 107), Memory-Specific Impairment (n = 457), Average (n = 539), Frontal Impairment (n = 118), and Superior Cognition (n = 124). Compared to the Average class, the Mixed-Domain Impairment and Memory-Specific Impairment classes were at higher risk of incident all-cause dementia and AD in the first 4 years from baseline, while the Frontal Impairment class was associated with higher risk between 4 and 8 years of follow-up. LCA identified classes which differ in cross-sectional cognitive patterns and in risk of dementia over specific follow-up intervals.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)347-357
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2018


  • All-cause dementia
  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • cognitive aging
  • cognitive subtypes
  • heterogeneity
  • individual differences
  • neuropsychology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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