Balazs Halmos, Xue wen Liu

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


AXL is a member of the TAM family, a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) subfamily composed of AXL, TYRO-3, and MER. Its main ligand is the vitamin K-dependent protein named growth arrest-specific gene 6 (Gas6). AXL is abnormally activated in many cancers by protein overexpression, point mutations, and gene fusions. The Gas6-AXL axis contributes to tumor progression, invasion, metastasis, and resistance both to chemotherapeutic and targeted anticancer therapies in a wide variety of cancers. In this review, we describe the biology of AXL, review diverse mechanisms of activation and the established and putative roles of AXL as a biomarker and therapeutic target in cancer therapy. Pre-clinical and clinical data for anti-AXL therapies to date are also summarized.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationCancer Therapeutic Targets
PublisherSpringer New York
Number of pages11
ISBN (Electronic)9781441907172
ISBN (Print)9781441907165
StatePublished - Jan 1 2017


  • Acquired TKI resistance
  • Activated mechanisms
  • AXL
  • Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)
  • Gas6
  • Overexpression
  • Point mutations
  • Receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)
  • TAM family
  • Targeted inhibitors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine
  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)


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