Endometrial hyperplasia is a common disorder that is now observed with increasing frequency in women treated with hormonal replacement therapy or with tamoxifen. This study was undertaken to determine whether genomic features of various forms of endometrial hyperplasias would allow their classification as a benign, premalignant, or malignant abnormality. Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) was performed on endometrial glands microdissected by laser capture microscope from 19 archival endometrial samples, comprising 5 normal endometria, 1 polyp, 2 simple hyperplasias, 5 hyperplasias with nuclear abnormalities (atypical hyperplasias), and 4 low-grade and 2 high-grade endometrioid carcinomas, 1 with squamous component (adenoacanthoma). Genomic DNA, extracted from the glands and the squamous component in 1 case, was amplified by degenerate oligonucleotide-primed polymerase chain reaction (DOP-PCR) and compared with sex-matched DNA by CGH. No genomic imbalances were observed in the normal samples, the polyp, or the simple hyperplasias. However, in atypical hyperplasia, regardless of the level of cytologic atypia, genomic abnormalities were observed that also occurred in endometrioid carcinomas. Chromosomes 1, 8, and 10 were most often affected. The results are compared with molecular genetic abnormalities recently reported in these lesions. This study strongly suggests that atypical endometrial hyperplasias are closely related to endometrioid carcinoma and should be considered precancerous lesions, contrary to simple hyperplasia, which is a benign disorder. The squamous component of one of the high-grade carcinomas showed genetic abnormalities similar to those of endometrioid carcinoma and therefore does not represent squamous metaplasia but is an integral part of the malignant process.
- Comparative genomic hybridization
- Endometrial hyperplasia
- Endometrioid carcinoma
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine