Association between Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy and Interval Neurocognitive Decline: An Analysis of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

Tali Elfassy, Shathiyah Kulandavelu, Leah Dodds, Robert A. Mesa, Tatjana Rundek, Vera Sharashidze, Michael Paidas, Martha L. Daviglus, Michelle A. Kominiarek, Ariana M. Stickel, Krista M. Perreira, Marissa A. Kobayashi, Tanya P. Garcia, Carmen R. Isasi, Richard B. Lipton, Hector M. González

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


OBJECTIVE:To evaluate whether hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, including gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, and eclampsia, are associated with cognitive decline later in life among U.S. Hispanic/Latina individuals.METHODS:The HCHS/SOL (Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos) is a prospective population-based study of Hispanic/Latino individuals aged 18-74 years from four U.S. communities. This analysis included parous individuals aged 45 years or older who participated in the HCHS/SOL clinic study visit 1 (2008-2011) neurocognitive assessment and subsequently completed a repeat neurocognitive assessment as part of the Study of Latinos-Investigation of Neurocognitive Aging ancillary study visit 2 (2015-2018). Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were assessed retrospectively by self-report of any gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, or eclampsia. Cognitive functioning was measured at both study visits with the Brief Spanish-English Verbal Learning Test, Digit Symbol Substitution, and Word Fluency. A regression-based approach was used to define cognitive decline at visit 2 as a function of cognition at visit 1 after adjustment for age, education, and follow-up time. Linear regression models were used to determine whether hypertensive disorders of pregnancy or their component diagnoses were associated with standardized cognitive decline after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics, clinical and behavioral risk factors, and follow-up time.RESULTS:Among 3,554 individuals included in analysis, the mean age was 56.2 years, and 467 of individuals (13.4%) reported at least one hypertensive disorder of pregnancy. Individuals with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy compared with those without were more likely to have higher mean systolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, and body mass index. After an average of 7 years of follow-up, in fully adjusted models, gestational hypertension was associated with a 0.17-SD relative decline in Digit Symbol Substitution scores (95% CI, -0.31 to -0.04) but not other cognitive domains (Brief Spanish-English Verbal Learning Test or Word Fluency). Neither preeclampsia nor eclampsia was associated with neurocognitive differences.CONCLUSION:The presence of preeclampsia or eclampsia was not associated with interval neurocognitive decline. In this cohort of U.S. Hispanic/Latina individuals, gestational hypertension alone was associated with decreased processing speed and executive functioning later in life.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)785-793
Number of pages9
JournalObstetrics and gynecology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 1 2024

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynecology


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