Assessment of birth defects according to maternal therapy among infants in the women and infants transmission study

D. Heather Watts, Daner Li, Ed Handelsman, Hugh Tilson, Mary Paul, Marc Foca, Mark Vajaranant, Clemente Diaz, Ruth Tuomala, Bruce Thompson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

52 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND: To evaluate rate and types of birth defects according to timing of antiretroviral exposure among babies born to HIV-infected women. METHODS: Anomalies identified during the prenatal, neonatal, or follow-up period were classified using criteria of the Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry. Antiretroviral use was classified as none, second or third trimester only, or first trimester. RESULTS: From January 1, 1990 through June 30, 2004, 2527 live births (LBs) occurred to 2353 women. Defects were identified in 90 babies for a rate of 3.56 defects per 100 LBs. The rate of defects was 3.19 per 100 LBs (24 of 752 LBs) with first-trimester antiretroviral exposure, 3.54 per 100 LBs (41 of 1158 LBs) with exposure later in pregnancy, and 4.05 of 100 LBs (25 of 617 LBs) with no antiretroviral use. Only genital abnormalities, specifically hypospadias, were significantly increased among babies born to women with first-trimester exposure to antiretrovirals (7 of 382 male LBs) compared with the 2 other groups (2 of 892 male LBs; P = 0.007). On logistic regression, use of zidovudine in the first trimester was associated with hypospadias (adjusted odds ratio = 10.68, 95% confidence interval: 2.11 to 54.13; P = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: In general, data were reassuring, although the frequency of exposure to newer agents was limited. The increased risk of hypospadias after first-trimester exposure must be explored, because this association has not been detected previously.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)299-305
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • Antiretrovirals
  • Birth defects
  • HIV
  • Pregnancy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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