Arterial blood gas changes in panic disorder and lactate- induced panic

Laszlo A. Papp, Jose M. Martinez, Donald F. Klein, Donald Ross, Michael R. Liebowitz, Abby J. Fyer, Eric Hollander, Jack M. Gorman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

40 Scopus citations


Lactate infusions were conducted in 12 male panic patients and 8 male normal controls with arterial catheters in place to reassess previously reported acid-base changes based on venous blood samples. The analysis of arterial pH, carbon dioxide pressure, and bicarbonate concentration confirmed most venous findings. At baseline, before the infusion, venous blood shows evidence of mixed chronic and acute respiratory alkalosis in patients while arterial blood gasses are most consistent with developing acute respiratory alkalosis. During the infusion both bloods are consistent with mixed metabolic and respiratory alkalosis with the patients hyperventilating more than normal controls and panicking patients hyperventilating more than nonpanicking patients. Arterial blood seems more sensitive than venous blood in detecting baseline differences between panicking and nonpanicking patients. A baseline arterial carbon dioxide pressure of 40 mmHg or higher and an arterial pH below 7.40 may predict no subsequent panic to lactate infusion.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)171-180
Number of pages10
JournalPsychiatry Research
Issue number2
StatePublished - May 1989
Externally publishedYes


  • HCO
  • PaCO
  • Panic
  • anxiety
  • blood gases
  • lactate infusion
  • pH

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Biological Psychiatry


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