Appropriate Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Biologic Agents for Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

Konstantinos Papamichael, Adam S. Cheifetz, G. Y. Melmed, Peter M. Irving, N. Vande Casteele, Patricia L. Kozuch, Laura E. Raffals, Leonard Baidoo, B. Bressler, Shane M. Devlin, Jennifer Jones, Gilaad G. Kaplan, Miles P. Sparrow, Fernando S. Velayos, Thomas Ullman, Corey A. Siegel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

175 Scopus citations


Background & Aims: Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is widely available for biologic therapies in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We reviewed current data and provided expert opinion regarding the clinical utility of TDM for biologic therapies in IBD. Methods: We used a modified Delphi method to establish consensus. A comprehensive literature review was performed regarding the use of TDM of biologic therapy in IBD and presented to international IBD specialists. Subsequently, 28 statements on the application of TDM in clinical practice were rated on a scale of 1 to 10 (1 = strongly disagree and 10 = strongly agree) by each of the panellists. Statements were accepted if 80% or more of the participants agreed with a score ≥7. The remaining statements were discussed and revised based on the available evidence followed by a second round of voting. Results: The panel agreed on 24 (86%) statements. For anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) therapies, proactive TDM was found to be appropriate after induction and at least once during maintenance therapy, but this was not the case for the other biologics. Reactive TDM was appropriate for all agents both for primary non-response and secondary loss of response. The panellists also agreed on several statements regarding TDM and appropriate drug and anti-drug antibody (ADA) concentration thresholds for biologics in specific clinical scenarios. Conclusion: Consensus was achieved towards the utility of TDM of biologics in IBD, particularly anti-TNF therapies. More data are needed especially on non-anti-TNF biologics to further define optimal drug concentration and ADA thresholds as these can vary depending on the therapeutic outcomes assessed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1655-1668.e3
JournalClinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Issue number9
StatePublished - Aug 2019


  • Anti-TNF
  • Consensus Statement
  • Crohn's Disease
  • Immunogenicity
  • Ulcerative Colitis
  • Ustekinumab
  • Vedolizumab

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hepatology
  • Gastroenterology


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