Antiretroviral drugs impact autophagy with toxic outcomes

Laura Cheney, John M. Barbaro, Joan W. Berman

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Antiretroviral drugs have dramatically improved the morbidity and mortality of people living with HIV (PLWH). While current antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens are generally well-tolerated, risks for side effects and toxicity remain as PLWH must take life‐long medications. An-tiretroviral drugs impact autophagy, an intracellular proteolytic process that eliminates debris and foreign material, provides nutrients for metabolism, and performs quality control to maintain cell homeostasis. Toxicity and adverse events associated with antiretrovirals may be due, in part, to their impacts on autophagy. A more complete understanding of the effects on autophagy is essential for developing antiretroviral drugs with decreased off target effects, meaning those unrelated to viral suppression, to minimize toxicity for PLWH. This review summarizes the findings and highlights the gaps in our knowledge of the impacts of antiretroviral drugs on autophagy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number909
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2021


  • Antiretroviral drugs
  • Autophagy
  • ER stress
  • HIV
  • Mitochondria
  • Mitophagy
  • Side effects
  • Toxicity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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