Adrenal infections

William F. Paolo, Joshua D. Nosanchuk

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

59 Scopus citations


Adrenal infections are an important but under-recognized clinical entity. The adrenal gland can be infected by a myriad of pathogens including fungi, viruses, parasites, and bacteria. Infection can directly or indirectly cause tissue damage and alteration in endocrine function. Direct damage occurs via microbial replication and local production of toxic compounds, such as endotoxins. Indirect damage results from alterations in the regulation of a host's immunologic and endocrine mediators in response to damage by a microbe at a distant site. Variations in pathogen tropism, adrenal anatomy, and host immune integrity contribute to the progression of active disease and discernable adrenal dysfunction. Early recognition and intervention in the case of adrenal infection can significantly improve outcome, demonstrating the need for increased clinical suspicion in the appropriate clinical setting.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)343-353
Number of pages11
JournalInternational Journal of Infectious Diseases
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 2006


  • Adrenal gland
  • Adrenal infection
  • Adrenal insufficiency
  • Adrenalitis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases


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